Hydrogen powers the sun that brings us light. It acts as the key ingredient in creating life. And now, Hydrogen will fuel vehicles of the future with the Hydrogen battery cell. Hydrogen is key, on every level, to our continued existence. So it’s time you learned a tonne of amazing facts about Hydrogen.
Fact 1: Hydrogen fuel cells use compressed hydrogen gas to store great amounts of potential energy.
Fact 2: Molecular hydrogen gas is the simplest of all molecules in the known universe.
Fact 3: Atoms of antihydrogen have been created at the CERN laboratory, which is located in Geneva on the French-Swiss border.
Fact 4: Two types of molecular hydrogen are known to science. They differ in their magnetic interactions due to the spinning motions of their protons.
Fact 5: Because Kinetic energy is distributed faster through hydrogen than any other gas, Hydrogen is considered to have the greatest heat conductivity of all known elements.
Fact 6: Hydrogen is a nonmetal element.
Fact 7: The molecule of Hydrogen, two Hydrogen atoms joined together, is 2.016 g/mol.
Fact 8: The fusion of Hydrogen into Helium in the Sun’s core is the source of the Sun’s light and heat.
Fact 9: By mass, Hydrogen is the ninth most abundant element on Earth.
Fact 10: A hydrogen atmosphere is used in the pouring of special castings, the annealing of metals, in the manufacturing of magnesium, and the cooling of large electric motors.
Fact 11: Hydrogen, at normal atmospheric pressure and 20°C, has a density of 0.000089 g/cm3
Fact 12: Radiation can cause hydrogen and chlorine to spontaneously explode in an energetic chemical process that creates hydrogen chloride.
Fact 13: There are over 30 hydrogen fuel cell-powered buses used throughout the United States.
Fact 14: A hydrogen airship holds an illustrious place in air travel history as the first flying vehicle to ever cross the Atlantic Ocean without stopping. The crossing was made by the British airship R34 in 1919.
Fact 15: Hydrogen is approximately 14 times lighter than the air in Earth’s atmosphere.
Fact 16: Hydrogen flames are nearly completely transparent and emit hardly any infrared radiation so you can’t feel heat radiation from a distance. However, the flame burns at roughly 1000°C and will severely burn on contact.
Fact 17: Hydrogen fuel cells generate electricity through an electrochemical reaction that releases on water and heat.
Fact 18: In 1929 it was discovered that ordinary hydrogen was actually a mixture of two kinds of molecules: ortho and para-hydrogen.
Fact 19: In the same year as Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier naming hydrogen, 1783, the first hydrogen-filled balloon was created and flown.
Fact 20: The lowest density liquid known to science is Liquid hydrogen
Fact 21: Although Hydrogen is seen as a clean energy source, it’s energy density is nearly 4 times less, liter for liter, than gasoline. This means a car needs to carry 4 times more hydrogen fuel to match the same maximum distance a car can travel with gasoline.
Fact 22: In 1852, Henri Giffard, a French engineer, invented the first hydrogen- airship.
Fact 23: Hydrogen has an atomic mass of 1.00794 atomic mass units (amu). For comparison, Gold has an atomic mass of 196.966amu.
Fact 24: Nearly every state in the U.S.A has major Hydrogen production facilities.
Fact 25: Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe.
Fact 26: Hydrogen has no known Allotropes.
Fact 27: Jupiter, like the sun, is mostly made from Hydrogen.
Fact 28: Hydrogen has been used as a primary rocket fuel by NASA and other space agencies.
Fact 29: Tritium, an isotope of Hydrogen, has an atomic mass of 3, 2 more than normal Hydrogen, because it contains one proton and two neutrons. Its atomic symbol is H3 or simply T.
Fact 30: Heavy water contains Deuterium instead of regular Hydrogen. It was discovered by Harold Urey in 1932, one year after he discovered Deuterium.
Fact 31: Hydrogen can be simply produced through the electrolysis of water.
Fact 32: Hydrogen is tasteless, odorless, colorless, and non-toxic. It is highly flammable but usually does not ignite easily unless an oxidizer, such as pure oxygen or air, and an ignition source are present.
Fact 33: Hydrogen is found in huge amounts in stars and giant gas planets.
Fact 34: By the time World War One started, over 35,000 passengers had been transported on Hydrogen lifted airships without any serious incidents or casualties.
Fact 35: Hydrogen had unwittingly been produced for hundreds of years before it was actually discovered and named as an element.
Fact 36: The lightest element on the periodic table, Hydrogen’s atomic number is 1. For comparison, Gold has an atomic number of 79.
Fact 37: Hydrogen is not, by the strictest sense, a part of any family or group on the periodic table. This is because Hydrogen is the only molecule without neutrons.
Fact 38: The most important industrial method of hydrogen production is an endothermic (heat absorbing) process called the catalytic steam-hydrocarbon process.
Fact 39: Under extreme heat and pressure, hydrogen can be compressed into a state called metallic Hydrogen. In this state, Hydrogen acts more like metal and can readily conduct electricity.
Fact 40: Hydrogen readily forms both positive and negative ions (The addition or subtraction of an electron).
Fact 41: James Dewar, a Scottish chemist, and physicist, liquefied hydrogen for the first time in 1898. One year later he succeeded in producing solid Hydrogen.
Fact 42: Hydrogen has about 11% more lift than Helium, the next lightest element.
Fact 43: James Dewar of Scotland produced solid hydrogen for the first time in 1899. One year after producing Liquified hydrogen.
Fact 44: Deuterium, an isotope of Hydrogen, has an atomic mass of 2 because its nucleus has one proton and one neutron. Its atomic symbol is H2.
Fact 45: An atom of antihydrogen, Hydrogen’s antimatter opposite, contains one antiproton which is a negatively charged version of the proton and one orbiting positron which is a positively charged version of the electron.
Fact 46: Hydrogen gas is produced naturally by certain types of algae and bacteria
Fact 47: Molecular hydrogen can easily react with many elements, molecules, and compounds at a wide range of temperatures.
Fact 48: In 1671, Robert Boyle, an Anglo-Irish, philosopher, chemist, and physicist, discovered that the reaction of acids and iron resulted in the production of Hydrogen.
Fact 49: Protium, an isotope of Hydrogen, is the most abundant type of hydrogen with an atomic mass of 1. It has the chemical symbol of H.
Fact 50: Research is developing clean and environmentally friendly methods to produce hydrogen from water and solar energy.
Fact 51: Metallic Hydrogen can be found at the center of most gas giant planets.
Fact 52: Hydrogen has three known isotopes: Protium, Deuterium, and Tritium.
Fact 53: On May 6, 1937, irreparable damage was done to Hydrogen’s reputation as a lifting gas after the Hindenburg airship was destroyed by fire.
Fact 54: At room temperature, Hydrogen is a gas.
Fact 55: Liquefied hydrogen is very cold and instantly causes very bad frostbite when it contacts the skin.
Fact 56: Though hydrogen burns as a clean fuel, the process of creating hydrogen is energy-intensive and not a clean process
Fact 57: Protium, an isotope of Hydrogen, has no neutrons in its nucleus to pair with its single proton.
Fact 58: When hydrogen is cooled to form a solid it grows hexagonal-shaped crystals.
Fact 59: The Boiling point of hydrogen is -252.87°C.
Fact 60: Hydrogen Ions make up a large proportion of the solar winds. When they interact with Earth’s magnetosphere they help make the aurora over the North and South Pole.
Fact 61: The United States produces a massive 10 million metric tons of hydrogen each year.
Fact 62: In para-hydrogen the protons’ spins are aligned in opposite directions: they are anti-parallel. In ortho-hydrogen, the two protons’ spins are aligned in the same direction.
Fact 63: In 1977 the first nickel-hydrogen battery was used aboard the U.S. Navy’s Navigation technology satellite-2 (NTS-2)
Fact 64: Antihydrogen, the antimatter opposite of Hydrogen, is the only antimatter element ever created as of 2020.
Fact 65: Hydrogen bonding is important in the field of biology as it plays an important role in determining the configurations of molecules.
Fact 66: Deuterium oxide is used in nuclear reactor cores as a shield and a moderator to slow down neutrons without absorbing them and to stabilize nuclear reactions.
Fact 67: Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey were both equipped with nickel-hydrogen batteries.
Fact 68: Because Hydrogen constantly escapes Earth’s atmosphere, there’s an extremely tenuous tail of hydrogen trailing behind Earth as it orbits the Sun.
Fact 69: 28 cubic meters of Hydrogen at 0°C at sea-level atmospheric pressure, will lift 35kg. For comparison, the same amount of Helium will lift 31.5kg.
Fact 70: Liquid hydrogen is used in labs to produce low temperatures for superconductivity studies.
Fact 71: Hydrogen is so light that Earth’s gravity cannot hold it in the atmosphere so any free hydrogen constantly escapes out into space.
Fact 72: There are approximately 4 million tonnes of Hydrogen turned into pure energy in the core of the sun every second. That is the equivalent of 2/3 of the Great Pyramid of Giza every second which itself weighs about 6 million tonnes.
Fact 73: The hydrogen bomb’s explosion involves the collision and fusion of Deuterium (H2) and Tritium (H3).
Fact 74: The German-built Hindenburg airship was filled with Hydrogen to give it lift.
Fact 75: In 1766, Henry Cavendish, an English natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist, showed that “flammable air” or hydrogen was distinct from other combustible gases due to its density. Cavendish also confirmed that on burning the gas water was formed.
Fact 76: An atom of AntiHydrogen is unstable and only lives for approximately 16 minutes and 40 seconds.
Fact 77: The Hydrogen isotope Deuterium is often used in nuclear fission applications and in nuclear fusion reactions.
Fact 78: 90 percent of all atoms in the universe are estimated to be Hydrogen.
Fact 79: On November 1, 1952, the first hydrogen bomb was tested on the United States island of Elugelab which is now part of the Marshall Islands.
Fact 80: Hydrogen is transparent to visible and infrared light, and to ultraviolet light at certain wavelengths.
Fact 81: Magnetic and electrical fields highly influence Hydrogen’s charged particles.
Fact 82: The Hydrogen isotope, Protium, is the only atom that can exist without a neutron in its nucleus.
Fact 83: Hydrogen filled airships were often used for observing the enemy and as bombers in World War One.
Fact 84: Countless carbon compounds contain Hydrogen including vegetable and animal tissue plus petroleum.
Fact 85: Hydrogen is the only atom for which Schrödinger’s equation (“Describes the wave function or state function of a quantum-mechanical system.”) has an exact solution.
Fact 86: The melting point of Hydrogen is an extremely chilly -259.14°C.
Fact 87: Hydrogen has exactly 1 electron circling its nucleus.
Fact 88: Hydrogen’s atomic symbol is a capital H.
Fact 89: In 1900 Ferdinand von Zeppelin pushed for the use of rigid airships lifted by hydrogen for commercial use. One year later the first Zeppelin was flown.
Fact 90: Hydrogen forms ions easier than any other known element.
Fact 91: In the mid-1600s Paracelsus, a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance, noticed that a flammable gas, which he didn’t know was Hydrogen, was given off when iron was dissolved in sulfuric acid. Unfortunately, he confused the Hydrogen with other flammable gases.
Fact 92: Another Hydrogen production process is the exothermic (heat-producing) non-catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbon under raised pressure process.
Fact 93: Every living organism, by weight, is 10 percent hydrogen. Hydrogen can be mainly found in water, proteins, and fat.
Fact 94: Hydrogen is often produced as a byproduct of the reaction between acids and metals.
Fact 95: In December 1931, Deuterium was discovered by Harold Urey, a Nobel Prize Winner from the U.S.
Fact 96: Hydrogen is found at the very top of group one in the periodic table.
Fact 97: The first hydrogen-cooled generator was used in 1937.
Fact 98: The name Hydrogen is derived from the Greek words “hudôr”, which means water and “gennan”, which means “to generate”. Put the two words together and they roughly translate to mean “maker of water”.
Fact 99: In 1783 Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, a French nobleman and chemist who was at the center of the 18th-century chemical revolution, came up with the name for Hydrogen. It comes from the Greek language and means “maker of water”.
Fact 100: In 1913 the first-ever chemical chain reaction was discovered. It involved a mixture of hydrogen and chlorine gases exploding when triggered by light.
Fact 101: The hydrogen fuel cells for vehicles are being developed that give off no harmful emissions. They only produce water vapor and warm air.
Fact 102: A molecule of hydrogen gas, which is different from the hydrogen atom, is made up of two protons in the nucleus and two orbiting electrons. This compares to 1 proton and 1 electron for atomic Hydrogen
Fact 103: Hydrogen’s secondary Industrial purpose is for fossil fuel processing.
Fact 104: Massive interstellar molecular clouds of Hydrogen are the birthplace of most stars.
Fact 105: Interstellar molecular clouds of Hydrogen, such as a nebula, can be many light-years across and often contain the equivalent mass of billions of Earths
Fact 106: Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Fluorine provide the strongest bonds with hydrogen.
Fact 107: Another application is the hydrogenation of organic compounds. This involves turning animal and vegetable oils and fats into products such as margarine.
Fact 108: Hydrogen is the third most abundant element on the surface of the Earth if the count is based on the number of atoms. The Hydrogen atoms are abundant in everyday chemicals like oils, gasolene, fats, rocks, minerals, and water.
Fact 109: The United States has over 1,600 miles of Hydrogen pipeline to move Hydrogen around the country.
Fact 110: The hydrogen (H) atom has a nucleus consisting of one positively charged proton and one negatively charged electron.
Fact 111:Along with Helium and Lithium, Hydrogen was one of only three elements made when the universe was first created by the Big Bang.
Fact 112: There is three times more Hydrogen than the next most widely occurring element Helium.
Fact 113: 75 percent of the matter in the universe by mass is Hydrogen. 24 percent is Helium, and the 1 paltry percent left over is for all the other elements.
Fact 114: In 1934, Tritium was created by Mark Oliphant, Ernest Rutherford, and Paul Harteck.
Fact 115: Hydrogen’s primary industrial purpose is in the creation of ammonia for the fertilizer.
Fact 116: In 1806, Francois Isaac de Rivaz invented the first-ever internal combustion engine which ran on a Hydrogen Oxygen mixture.
Fact 117: When Hydrogen burns, the only byproduct is water and heat as the hydrogen combines with the oxygen in the burning process to form water molecules. This is why Hydrogen is seen as a clean energy source.