197 Facts About John F. Kennedy’s Assassination

November 22, 1963 was one of America’s worst days in history. Most people, as soon as you say the date, will know what happened on that day.  It affected not only the people of America, especially the generation of that age, but also millions of people who loved President John F. Kennedy around the world. The events on that day had a traumatic impact everywhere and, even now, over 50 years later, you hear people say, “What would the world have been like if JFK had lived?” There continues to be speculation about his death resulting in hundreds of different conspiracy theories.  Sometimes the simplest explanation is hard to accept and people search for a more complicated, ‘truth’ – did the assassin act alone, or was he part of a plan? Most historians believe the assassination of President John F. Kennedy was one of America’s nexus points, the other being ‘9/11’. Here are 197 facts about President John F. Kennedy’s assassination – some facts will make you question the many inconclusive details that continue to surround his death.

Fact 1: In June 1963, as part of a fundraising tour of the Southwestern areas of the United States of America, including Colorado, New Mexico, California, and Hawaii, President John F. Kennedy visited El Paso in Texas. Here in Texas he met with Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, a native of Texas, and Governor John B. Connolly Jr. The Vice President. The Governor was keen for President John F. Kennedy to visit Texas later that same year, and, after discussing and discarding various dates they felt that November would prove to be a good time to arrange a visit, with possible stops in Fort Worth, Dallas, San Antonia, and Houston. Some feel that what happened on that fateful day in November 1963 had already been set in motion at this initial meeting 5 months earlier. 

Fact 2: It is well documented that John F. Kennedy suffered from severe back pain and, to help this, he often wore a fairly rigid back brace which he wore on the day he was killed. Some physicians, including Dr Kenneth Salyer, one of the Dallas doctors who treated the president on the day he was assassinated, November 22, 1963, felt his back brace may have hampered his movement thus playing a role in his death.

Fact 3: We know the first shot that hit President John F. Kennedy went through the rear of his shoulder. The tremendous thud from the bullet should have caused him to slump over in the car, but, because of the firm, corset type back brace he was wearing that day, it kept him fairly upright in the seat making him an easier target for the second shot. John Connally, the Governor of Texas, who was travelling in the same car as President John F. Kennedy, and who was also shot, escaped further damage because the bullet caused him to slump forward. Dr Kenneth Salyer remarked later that if the president had ‘slumped down like John Connally did’, he may well have survived. 

Fact 4: During the investigation carried out by the Warren Commission, statements were made claiming that before the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald had been an undercover FBI Agent and an informer for the CIA. Evidence was produced in support of this, including the fact that Lee Harvey Oswald was paid, by the FBI, $200 each month which was left in one of his post office boxes using an alias name.

Fact 5: The Warren Commission accused both the FBI and the CIA for not fully cooperating with the investigation and not producing all the evidence they had in their possessions relating to Lee Harvey Oswald. This evidence, that should have been made available to the Warren Commission at the time by the FBI and CIA, only came to light many years after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy when the files had been declassified and became accessible to the public.

Fact 6: Most official documents pertaining to President John F. Kennedy’s life and assassination have been declassified and released for public viewing over a number of years since the early 1990’s, but other documents still remain classified.

Fact 7: President Donald Trump, on April 26, 2018, when additional documents were declassified and released by the National Archives, agreed for the FBI, CIA, and other agencies, to further review and redact the remaining documents. He gave a final release deadline of October 26, 2021. It is not known what information these documents contain or if they will, in fact, ever be released in full.

Fact 8: Lee Harvey Oswald was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, America on October 18, 1939. His mother was Marguerite Frances Claverie and his father, Robert Edward Lee Oswald Sr., died of a heart attack 2 months before his son Lee was born. 

Fact 9: It was the first time a radio had ever been taken into the operating room in Parkland Memorial Hospital while Governor Connolly was having surgery in Trauma Room Two. This is where the surgical team heard the announcement, from Trauma Room One next door, that President John F. Kennedy was dead. It was Friday, November 22, 1963.

Fact 10: Lee Harvey Oswald had an older brother, Robert Oswald Jr., who Lee idolized and it was likely, because his brother was in the U.S. Marine Corps, that Lee also enlisted in the Marines one week after his 17th birthday on October 24, 1956. Because Lee was underage at that time, his elder brother had to verify for Lee as his legal guardian.

Lee Harvey Oswald in the U. S. Marine Corps

Fact 11: Lee Harvey Oswald’s mother Marguerite, had previously been married to Edward John Pic Jr., and Lee and his brother Robert had a half brother, John Edward Pic, who was a U.S. Air Force Veteran. 

Fact 12: The earliest official description available of Lee Harvey Oswald is when he enlisted in the U.S. Marines in 1956 and his statistics, as shown on his papers, state he was 5 feet 8 inches (1.73 meters) tall, weighed 135 pounds (61 kg), had hazel colored eyes, and brown hair. 

Fact 13: When Lee Harvey Oswald joined the U.S. Marine Corps, he was trained as a radar operator, which was an area of training that was issued with a high security clearance. In 1957 Lee Harvey Oswald was stationed at the American U2 Naval Air Base in Atsugi in Japan, where he surveyed radar for high-altitude American military spy planes. Lee Harvey Oswald, as part of his radar operator training, had been issued with a top secret security clearance. A Marine Corps document in May 1957 stated Lee Harvey Oswald was ‘granted final clearance to handle classified material up to and including confidential’. There was a large CIA station situated on Atsugi at the time Lee Harvey Oswald was posted there.

Fact 14: At the time of the assassination a number of witnesses, including some Police Officers, stated they heard 4 shots. There has always been controversy surrounding the area known as ‘the grassy knoll,’ which is situated on the same side but slightly lower down from the Texas School Book Depository, and many say they heard ‘a shot’ or ‘shots’ coming from this area. If a second gunman had been involved in the assassination, this area would be the ‘perfect’ spot for their ‘shot’.

Fact 15: When President John F. Kennedy arrived at Parkland Memorial Hospital following the shooting on November 22, 1963, he was already technically dead but his wife, Jacqueline Kennedy, wanted him to receive the Catholic last rites before his death. Father Oscar Huber performed the last rites and, following this, Dr. William Kemp Clark pronounced President John F. Kennedy dead.

Fact 16: Lee Harvey Oswald, as part of the training that all Marines received, was trained in shooting. He initially was rated as a sharpshooter but this was later reduced to marksman which is an average, or below average, shooter.

Fact 17: What has always been disputed by historians is the short amount of time the Warren Commission had decided it took for Lee Harvey Oswald to fire the 3 bullets from the Mannlicher-Carcano M91/38 bolt-action rifle. This was 8.3 seconds. The timing of which not only had to include the accurate alignment of the target, the actual shooting, but also pulling back the bolt action on the rifle at least twice in that very short amount of time. Many expert shooter’s have tried, and failed, to accomplish this in the time stated.

Fact 18: The rifle used by Lee Harvey Oswald was examined by Ronald Simmons of the US Army who found trigger and bolt mechanism problems that would impact on the rifle’s shooting and it’s accuracy. 

The Mannlicher-Carcano Rifle used by the assassin

Fact 19: The Warren Commission had requested a simulation of the shooting of the 3 bullets within the timescale they had stipulated of 8.3 seconds. They wanted to duplicate exactly what the assassin had done and achieve it within the 8.3 seconds so expert riflemen from the U.S. Army and the FBI, using the gun used by the assassin, tried but did not manage to achieve the speed and the accuracy of the assassin.

Fact 20: The distance from the window on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository to President John F. Kennedy’s limousine was approximately 90-82 metres when the shooting took place. The shooting was compounded by a number of factors including the limousine was moving away from the building at the time, the limousine was hidden from view by an oak tree for some of the time, the rifle used to shoot had problems with the bolt action and trigger (as tested by the U.S. Army) and, all 3 shots would need to be fired within the 8.3 seconds the Warren Commission decreed.

Fact 21: It was well known when he was younger, and while in the Marines, that Lee Harvey Oswald wanted to go to Russia. He taught himself very basic Russian while in the Marines and saved some of his Marine’s salary to pay for his trip to Russia in October 1959. 

Fact 22: When Lee Harvey Oswald arrived in Russia in October 1959, he informed his guide that he was a communist and wanted to live in Russia. He went to the U.S. embassy in Moscow to see Richard Snyder, the Senior Consular Official there. The story of his defection was reported in some American newspapers including the Miami News on October 31, 1959, ‘Texas Marine gives up U.S. for Russia’.

Fact 23: Lee Harvey Oswald met his wife-to-be, Marina Prusakova, a 29 year old Russian pharmacology student, on March 17, 1961, and less than 6 weeks later they were married on April 30, 1961.

Marina Oswald

Fact 24: Marina Nikolayevna Prusakova was born on July 17, 1941 in Molotovsk in the Arkhangelsk Oblast region in northern Russia. Her father had been killed in the war. She lived with her mother and her stepfather as a child, and then she moved to Minsk to live with her uncle who worked at the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ilya Prusakova. Marina worked in the pharmacy department of a local hospital and, in March 1961, she met Lee Harvey Oswald at a local dance hall in Minsk, Belarus.

Fact 25: Lee Harvey Oswald and Marina Oswald’s first child, a girl, June Lee Oswald, was born on February 15 1962 in Minsk, Russia.

Fact 26: In May 1962, Lee Harvey Oswald and Marina Oswald visited the U.S. Embassy in Moscow to speak to Richard Snyder again, to apply for him to return to America and for Marina to apply for an American visa.

Fact 27: The U.S Embassy in Moscow approved the visa that Marina Oswald had applied for and, on June 1, the Embassy issued a repatriation loan of $435.71 to Lee Harvey Oswald and his family, and they were able to leave Russian and return to America almost immediately, settling in the Fort Worth area where Lee’s mother and brother lived.

Fact 28: Throughout Lee Harvey Oswald’s childhood and early teenage years, his mother moved constantly around the New Orleans, Dallas, Fort Worth, and New York districts, resulting in him attending 12 different schools and living in 22 different areas. 

Fact 29: Lee Harvey Oswald and his wife Marina became friends with George De Mohrenschildt, who was born in Russia on April 17, 1911, and was the son of a wealthy Russian noble family. His father and uncle owned the Branobel Oil Company in Baku on the Caspian Sea. In 1921, De Mohrenschildt and his family managed to escape the Russian Revolution by travelling to Poland. In 1938, he went to live with his brother Dimitri and his wife in America. 

Fact 30: George De Mohrenschildt was 35 years older than Lee Harvey Oswald and some considered it a strange friendship because of the age difference between the two men. George De Mohrenschildt’s family were involved in the oil business and were friends with H. L. Hunt and Clint Murchison who had helped to finance the political career of Lyndon B. Johnson.

Fact 31: After the assassination and the investigation that followed, links were found between Lee Harvey Oswald and George De Mohrenschildt that strongly suggested De Mohrenschilt was ‘looking after’ Lee for the CIA. 

Fact 32: D. Harold Boyd, the Texas oilman who owned the Texas School Book Depository building, was friends with George De Mohrenschildt, who was, in turn, friends with Lee Harvey Oswald.

Fact 33: In an interview in 1977, that George De Mohrenschildt had with Edward Jay Epstein, an American investigative journalist, De Mohrenschildt stated that he’d never done any paid work for the CIA but he had done ‘favours’ for the CIA and different CIA Agents and they, in turn, had helped him in securing business contracts.

Fact 34: John F. Kennedy’s funeral on Monday 25 November 1963, was also his son John Jr.’s 3rd birthday, and his daughter Caroline would be 6 years old two days later.

Fact 35: One of the most famous presidential photographs taken aboard a presidential aircraft was taken aboard SAM- 26000 after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The photo shows Lyndon B. Johnson taking the oath of office as the new President with his wife Lady Bird Johnson on one side of him and Jacqueline Kennedy on the other side. Kennedy was still wearing the pink Chanel suit she was wearing while travelling in the car with her husband when he was shot and killed, it was still smeared with his blood.

Lyndon B. Johnson taking the oath of office on Air Force One shortly after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, whose body was on the plane 

Fact 36: In one of the photographs taken on Air Force One, when Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the new 36th President of the United States of America, you can see one of Johnson’s very good friends, Albert Richard Thomas, ‘winking’ at Johnson as they looked at each other. This was the same Albert Richard Thomas, who, like Johnson was also a native of Texas, who had an appreciation dinner arranged in his honour in Dallas, Texas, on the evening of November 21, 1963, the day before the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The dinner was attended by over 3,200 democrats including President John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. Albert Richard Thomas was a democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Houston, Texas. He was a lawyer and served as the Assistant United States Attorney for the Southern district of Texas. He was a close friend and a protege of Lyndon Johnson. The day after the dinner, he accompanied the presidential party as it travelled to Dallas where President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. He witnessed the swearing in of Lyndon Baines Johnson on Air Force One as the new President of the United States of America, while the casket holding the body of President John F. Kennedy was on the same plane. 

Fact 37: It was not known at the time of President John F. Kennedy’s assassination that Lee Harvey Oswald had left a note for his wife Marina at Ruth Paine’s home, where Marina was staying at that time, telling Marina what to do if he did not return home on the night retired U. S. Major General Edwin Walker, an anti-communist, was shot but uninjured, on April 10, 1963. This note was not found until ten days after the President Kennedy shooting. A number of independent handwriting experts would not authenticate the letter as being written by Lee Harvey Oswald, but an FBI handwriting expert thought it had been written by him. The letter had not been dated or signed and there was no mention of Edwin Walker in it.

Fact 38: Ruth Paine’s house had been searched by various officials including FBI Agents during the afternoon of the assassination. The note, allegedly written by Lee Harvey Oswald and left in Ruth Paine’s house, was not found at the time even though it was stated that every part of the house, garden, and garage, was searched including pages in books. It was subsequently revealed that the handwritten note had been tucked inside a book on the Russian language that Ruth Paine had sent to Marina.

Fact 39:  The presidential plane, Boeing VC-137C, Air Force One SAM-26000 was used from 1962. President John F. Kennedy was the first President to use SAM-26000 on November 10, 1962 to attend the funeral of former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt in New York. It was also the plane that took President John F. Kennedy to Berlin, flew him and his wife to Dallas Love Field on November 22, 1963, and brought his body back to Washington D.C. following his assassination on that same day. 

Air Force One – SAM-26000

Fact 40: As President John F. Kennedy was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery on Monday 25 November 1963, it was SAM- 26000 who flew overhead to give a final goodbye, it was followed by 50 fighter jets. It was Colonel Swindal who returned President John F. Kennedy’s body to Washington D. C. and it was Colonel Swindal who was also the pilot when SAM-26000 flew over President John F. Kennedy’s funeral at Arlington National Cemetery.

Fact 41: Following President John F. Kennedy’s assassination and the arrest of Lee Harvey Oswald, the FBI and Secret Service, placed Marina Oswald and her young children in the ‘Inn of the Six Flags’ in Arlington near Fort Worth where they interviewed her. ‘Interrogated her’ was suggested as she was threatened with deportation back to Russia. The evidence she gave was often contradictory and sometimes untrue and it was felt this was due to her being coerced and intimidated by those ‘interviewing’ her.

Lee Harvey Oswald following his arrest, initially for the shooting of Dallas Police Officer J. D. Tippit and then for the President of the United States of America

Fact 42: Lee Harvey Oswald was not charged with the killing of President Kennedy until the day after the assassination on November 23, 1963.  

Fact 43: Seven different fingerprints were found by an FBI fingerprint expert on the note allegedly written by Lee Harvey Oswald following the shooting of Edwin Walker. None of the fingerprints belonged to Lee Harvey Oswald or Marina Oswald.

Fact 44: When President John F. Kennedy was brought to Trauma Room One in Parkland Memorial Hospital just after he’d been shot in Dealey Plaza Dallas, he was referred to only as ‘white male 24740’.

Fact 45: President John F. Kennedy told his good friend Senator George Smathers, an American lawyer and politician, that Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson wanted his wife Jacqueline Kennedy to ride in the same car as the President, her husband, during his tour of Texas. Jacqueline did not usually travel with her husband when he went on political tours – she stayed at home with the children.

Fact 46: In May 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald ordered a number of items from a local printer including membership cards and over 1,000 leaflets saying ‘Hands Off Cuba’. He handed out the leaflets in New Orleans a few months later in August 1963, and was arrested for disturbing the peace, but he was released the same day.

Lee Harvey Oswald handing out ‘Hands off Cuba’ leaflets in New Orleans

Fact 47: During Lee Harvey Oswald’s time in New Orleans, when he was handing out ‘Hands Off Cuba’ leaflets, he spoke to an FBI Agent and said he was a member of the New Orleans branch of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee which he declared had over 30 members and was led by A. J. Hidell. The only member the Agents could trace was Lee Harvey Oswald and the leaflets he had been handing out were not part of any recognized organization.

Fact 48: Lee Harvey Oswald visited Mexico City on September 27, 1963 where he tried to obtain a visa at the Cuban Embassy. He spoke with both Cuban and Russian officials in the Embassy, saying he wanted to visit Cuba to help the pro-Castro revolution but the visa was refused. He returned to Dallas on October 3, 1963 after travelling by bus from Mexico City.

Fact 49: In late October 1963, the Cuban authority authorized its Embassy to approve the issue of a visa to Cuba for Lee Harvey Oswald which he had requested the month before. Lee had already started working at the Texas School Book Depository in Dallas as he had assumed the visa would not be granted.

Fact 50: It could not be ruled out whether someone was impersonating Lee Harvey Oswald, or using his name without his knowledge. While it is generally accepted that it was ‘probably’ Lee Harvey Oswald himself who visited Mexico City, there is no proof it was definitely him, and, it is still questionable if it was in fact him who visited the Cuban and Russian Embassies in Mexico City. 

Fact 51: In 2017, the CIA declassified a document for release to the public in which it suggested that Lee Harvey Oswald, while visiting Mexico City, was attempting to obtain the relevant documents to aid his escape to Russia after the assassination, but this has never been actually proven.

Fact 52: Soon after President John F. Kennedy’s death, his wife Jacqueline Kennedy wanted to commemorate her husband’s life by building a library dedicated to him. Working with the Chinese-American architect Ieoh Ming Pei, they designed what would become known as the John F. Kennedy Library and Museum which was built overlooking Boston Harbor.

Fact 53: C2766 was the serial number on the Mannlicher-Carcano Italian, 6.5-millimeter military rifle, found on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository, a few minutes following the assassination of President Kennedy on November 22, 1963.

Fact 54: On September 24, 1964 the 888 page report from the President’s Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy was presented to Lyndon B. Johnson. The Warren Commission Report found the shots which killed Kennedy were fired by Oswald and that he acted alone. The Report also found Oswald wounded Texas Governor John Connally and killed Officer Tippit while evading arrest. Further, it found that the involvement of Jack Ruby who shot Lee Harvey Oswald, was also not part of any conspiracy.

The Warren Commission presenting their report on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy to President Lyndon B. Johnson. In the picture is the 38th President of the U.S – President Gerald Ford (fourth from the left)

Fact 55: In February 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald and his wife Marina, were invited to a party by their friend George De Mohrenschildts. Also, at that same party was Ruth Paine, a committed Quaker and a member of the American Civil Liberties Union. George De Mohrenschildts introduced Ruth to the Oswalds. 

Fact 56: Ruth Paine was a student of the Russian language and, after becoming friends with the Oswalds, she asked Marina if she would help her with it which Marina was happy to do. They often conversed in Russian to help Ruth become proficient in it. Ruth Paine often visited Marina when Lee was in work. It had been suggested that Ruth befriended Marina so she (Ruth) could obtain information about Lee Harvey Oswald.

Fact 57: Marina Oswald’s first language was Russian, and this was the language she mainly conversed in as she only knew a few English words. It was Ruth Paine who translated the questions the Government Agents and the Dallas Police Officers were asking Marina during their visit to Ruth Paine’s house, where Marina was staying with her children, following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. 

Fact 58: Ruth Paine gave a reference which helped Lee Harvey Oswald obtain a job in the Texas School Book Depository in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas, which he started on October 16, 1963 as a school book order filler which paid $1.25 per hour.

Fact 59: On October 20, 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald’s second daughter, Audrey Marina Rachel Oswald (known as Rachel), was born just 4 days after he’d started working at the Texas School Book Depository. Rachel was born in Parkland Memorial Hospital, Dallas, Texas.

Fact 60: Ruth Avery Hyde was born on September 3, 1932 to her parents, William and Carol Hyde. She attended a local college as she wanted to learn to speak Russian. Ruth became a Quaker and met her husband Michael Paine through one of the meetings. They were married on December 28 1957 and moved to Irving, Dallas, where Ruth became a part time teacher at St Mark’s School in Dallas. They had two children, Lynn born in 1959 and Christopher born in 1961. Ruth Paine’s husband, Michael Paine, worked for the Bell Helicopter Company in Fort Worth, Texas, as a research engineer with a high security clearance. It was Michael Paine’s step-father Arthur M. Young, who had invented the Bell 47 helicopter, which helped Michael secure a high level job in the company.

Fact 61: On November 24, 1963, Oswald was himself shot by nightclub operator Jack Ruby while being transferred from the city jail to Dallas County jail. After Ruby shot Oswald, he was taken to the same Parkland Hospital which had received President John F. Kennedy less than 48 hours earlier. Oswald was pronounced dead a short time later. Ruby was convicted of Oswald’s murder in 1964 despite a plea of insanity. Ruby developed lung cancer in prison and died in January 1967, also in Parkland Memorial Hospital. 

Jack Ruby shoots Lee Harvey Oswald

Fact 62: Declassified official documents have shown that both Ruth and Michael Paine were connected to the CIA, as were their respective parents. Other family members also worked for government agencies including Ruth’s elder sister Sylvia Hyde Hoke, who was a CIA agent, and their father William Avery Hyde, who worked for a known CIA department USAID (United States Agency for International Development), a known cover for the CIA, as did Sylvia’s husband John Hoke. Ruth visited and stayed with her sister Sylvia in September 1963. Declassified documents state that Sylvia may also have worked for ‘other’ opposition agencies. 

Fact 63: Michael Paine’s mother, Ruth Forbes Paine, was a friend of Mary Bancroft, who was a close friend and associate of Allen Dulles, the CIA director at the time of the assassination. Michael’s parents, Ruth’s parents, Mary Bancroft, and Allen Dulles often spent time together. 

Ex-Director of the CIA Allen Dulles – dismissed from the CIA by President John F. Kennedy over the Bay of Pigs fiasco

Fact 64: Following the assassination of President Kennedy, Ruth Paine’s house and the room that Lee Harvey Oswald rented in the Oak Cliff area, were searched and items were removed by Dallas Police Officers. The whereabouts of three of these removed items, all found in Ruth Paine’s house, namely a Minox camera and 2 rolls of undeveloped Minox film, is unknown as they disappeared between the first inventory, where the camera and films can clearly be seen in the photographed inventory list, prepared by the Dallas Police Department soon after the assassination, and the third inventory, which was prepared by the FBI after all the hundreds of pieces of evidence had been sent to the FBI in Washington D.C. The FBI used 5 rolls of film to photograph all the evidence, either as individual items or as grouped items. Once these 5 rolls of film had been developed by the FBI, a full set would be supplied to the Dallas Police Chief. Every one of the 5 rolls of film, taken by the FBI, disappeared and were not recovered. There were a total of 455 items of evidence removed from Ruth Paine’s house and Lee Harvey Oswald’s rental room.

Fact 65: In 1976, the United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) was formed to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. A House Committee summary report on December 29, 1978 found that President John F. Kennedy was ‘probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy,’ and that there was a ‘high probability’ a second gunman, as well as Oswald, fired at President John F. Kennedy. The House Committee did not believe that the Soviet Government, the Cuban Government, the FBI, the CIA, or Secret Service were involved in the assassination. The committee also concluded that there was no evidence to conclude anti-Castro Cuban groups or a national syndicate of organised crime were involved, but said that did not exclude the possibility that individual members of either may have been involved. The House Committee inquiry inflamed the theories of a second gunman and a wider conspiracy.

Fact 66: There were suspicions at the time that some members of the Paine’s and Hoke’s families, acting on behalf of the FBI or some other ‘agency’, were involved in the plan to assassinate President John F. Kennedy. This has been further compounded since official documents, confirming members of both families were agents of the CIA or another agency, have been declassified and are now available to the public.

Fact 67: James Hosty, an FBI Agent, had wanted to examine the income tax returns of Ruth and Michael Paine but was informed that they had been classified as secret. Why the Paine’s were being protected by the Government produced further suspicions they were involved with Agencies possibly at a high level.

Fact 68: Lee Harvey Oswald always maintained, during his arrest and subsequent interrogation, that he didn’t know anything about any killings and that he was being ‘set up as a patsy’. It was suggested that Ruth Paine may have been involved in the plan to set Lee Harvey Oswald up as she had many ‘interviews’ with the police and other Government Agents. 

Fact 69: After Lee Harvey Oswald had been arrested, on the afternoon following the assassination of President Kennedy, he was taken from the Texas Theatre to the Dallas Police jail. Here he was interrogated in one of the jail’s interview rooms but no written notes of any kind or tape recordings of the interviews were ever produced. It was stated during the investigation that notes were not taken during the interrogation which is not the usual process followed when a suspect is being held and ‘interviewed’. A valid explanation for this was never found.

Fact 70: On Sunday, November 24, 1963, the second casket President John F. Kennedy’s body had been placed in was draped with the American flag and carried to the Rotunda in the U. S. Capitol on a caisson (which is a two wheeled horse drawn cart, and is often used in times of war to transport artillery to soldiers, or to remove the wounded or dead soldiers from the battlefield). It was pulled by six horses and accompanied by a seventh riderless horse. The riderless horse symbolizes a fallen leader and was one of the highest honours given by the U.S. Armed Forces. On the day of President John F. Kennedy’s funeral, the riderless horse was ‘Black Jack’ who served a long military career from 1947 to 1976 and was the riderless horse at the funerals of 2 other American Presidents, President Herbert Hoover in 1964, and President Lyndon Johnson in 1973.

President John F. Kennedy’s casket being taken to the Rotunda in the U. S. Capitol to lie in state – followed by the riderless horse ‘Black Jack’

Fact 71: Post Office Box 2915, Dallas, Texas, was the post office number that Lee Harvey Oswald used when he ordered the Mannlicher-Carcano rifle. An order coupon, which came from the February 1963 issue of the American Rifleman magazine, was completed in handwriting with the name ‘A. Hidell’ and it had the Post Office number on it. Inside the envelope that the handwritten order coupon for the rifle had been placed in, was a U.S. postal money order for $21.45. This was for the cost of the rifle, which included a scope, and for postage and handling. The receipt for the cost of the rifle was dated March 13 1963 and the rifle would be posted ready assembled.

Fact 72: Lyndon B. Johnson told CBS newsman Walter Cronkite in an interview in 1969 that he did not discount the possibility of President John F. Kennedy’s death being the work of a foreign power. Johnson requested the comment be removed before it aired for national security reasons and it only aired after Johnson’s death.

Fact 73: President John F. Kennedy was in office for a total of 1,036 days.

Fact 74: At the time of Lee Harvey Oswald’s arrest he was searched by Dallas Police Officers, and a number of items were found on his person including, a Smith & Wesson .38 revolver which had also been purchased by mail order. It was this gun that had been forcibly removed from Lee Harvey Oswald, by a Dallas Police Officer, when he was found hiding in The Texas Theatre. It was during removal of this gun that Lee Harvey Oswald hurt his eye which can be clearly seen in the photographs taken following his arrest.

Fact 75: There were a number of other items in Lee Harvey Oswald’s wallet following his arrest and these included a Selective Service Registration Certificate, a Selective Service Notice of Classification, and a Certificate of Service in the U.S. Marine Corps. All 3 of these cards were in the name of Lee Harvey Oswald. His wallet also contained a Marine Certificate of Service and a Selective Service Notice of Classification, both in the name of ‘Alek James Hidell’ and both with a photograph showing Lee Harvey Oswald, which experts testified each of these had been altered and ‘doctored’.

The Selective Service System Card shows the photo of Lee Harvey Oswald but the name of Alek James Hidell

Fact 76: In April 1963, Ruth Paine had separated amicably from her husband Michael, and she and Marina had become friends. Marina, who was pregnant with her second child at the time, and her first child June Lee, moved in with Ruth Paine in Irving, Dallas on a temporary basis. Lee Harvey Oswald was renting a room in a boarding house in the Oak Cliff area of Dallas to be nearer his area of work. During weekends, he stayed with Marina in Ruth Paine’s house. Apart from a couple of months when Marina and baby June stayed with her husband in New Orleans, the routine of weekdays in Dallas and weekends with Ruth Paine continued until he was arrested on November 22, 1963 – except for one day – the day before the assassination.

Fact 77: President John F. Kennedy’s trip to Dallas was first announced to the public in September 1963. The motorcade route and times were finalized on November 18, 1963 and announced to the public.

Fact 78: As soon as the rifle was found on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, there was confusion over where exactly it had been found on the sixth floor, and if there were fingerprints on it, or if there were fingerprints anywhere in the ‘sniper’s nest’ area and on the boxes surrounding it. The rifle was found some way from where the empty bullet casings were found and the FBI explained this by stating the rifle had been hidden by the shooter and the empty bullet casings were left within the immediate area of the window in the ‘sniper’s nest’ from where the shooting took place.

Fact 79: The area on the sixth floor in the Texas School Book Depository was not controlled after the shooting and various items, including the boxes around the ‘sniper’s nest’ area, had been moved by the attending officers and government officials, thus sabotaging the crime area. The Warren Commission produced a number of photographs of the area and the space surrounding the ‘sniper’s nest’ but the boxes and bullet casings in the photographs were actually rearranged for the purposes of taking these photographs.

Fact 80: Deputy Eugene Boone and Deputy Sheriff Roger Craig were the first officers to arrive on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository soon after the shooting. It was Roger Craig who found the bullet casings on the floor near the open window. Deputy Boone found the rifle and he immediately said it was a ‘Mauser’. A Third officer, Seymour Weitzman arrived at the scene, and being a gun connoisseur, also identified the gun as a ‘Mauser’. Deputy Sheriff Craig said that clearly stamped on the gun barrel was ‘7.65 Mauser’. Within hours of the assassination rifle being claimed as a ‘Mauser’, the majority of statements made to that effect by the various Officers who were on the scene at the time and saw the rifle close-up, were withdrawn and changed to state it was a ‘Mannlicher Carcano’ rifle. All except for Roger Craig’s statement which he would not change because he was certain that the rifle he saw on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository on that day, November 22, 1963, was a ‘7.65 Mauser’ German rifle. 

Fact 81: There was confusion over the prints that were found on the rifle. The FBI had declared categorically that there were no prints at all on the rifle, whereas the Dallas Police stated they had ‘lifted’ a palm print off the rifle as soon as it had been found on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository, and, on examination by a fingerprint expert, this print was found to be the right palm of Lee Harvey Oswald. It was never clear exactly when the palm print had been ‘lifted’ from the rifle found on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository by Lieutenant J. C. Day of the Dallas Police. 

Fact 82: President John F. Kennedy’s widow, Jacqueline Kennedy led the funeral procession from The White House to St. Matthews Cathedral on foot, approximately 0.9 miles (1.4km). She was accompanied by her husband’s brothers, Robert and Edward Kennedy. It was the first time that a First Lady, Jacqueline Kennedy, had walked in her husband’s funeral procession. President John F. Kennedy and his wife often walked the same route as the funeral procession when attending Mass at the Cathedral. The children of President John F. Kennedy and Jacqueline Kennedy, Caroline and John Jr., rode in a limousine just behind their mother and uncles. The rest of the Kennedy family had gone ahead and were waiting at the Cathedral, except for Joseph P. Kennedy Sr., President John F. Kennedy’s father, who could not attend due to illness.

Jacquline Kennedy leading the funeral procession of her husband, President John F. Kennedy on foot on Monday November 25 1963

Fact 83: Condolence cards sent by President John F. Kennedy’s widow Jacqueline Kennedy following the death of her husband contained the words ‘Mrs Kennedy is deeply appreciative of your sympathy and grateful for your thoughtfulness’.

Fact 84: Hundreds of different prints were found on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository, the majority belonged to employees who worked there, a large number were indistinct, and 25 prints were clear enough for identification purposes. Of these 25 clear prints, four belonged to Lee Harvey Oswald, two fingerprints were found on boxes in the ‘sniper’s nest’ area, and one palm print was ‘lifted’ from the rifle by Lieutenant J. C. Day, which he did not photograph at the time and did not submit to the FBI until November 26, 1963. One print was found on a bag in the area that it was thought had contained the rifle at some point but this was never proven.

Fact 85: The rifle was flown to Washington just before midnight on November 22, 1963 and examined by a well known and well respected fingerprint expert, Sebastian Latona, at an FBI laboratory. After a full examination of the rifle and the photographs supplied, he concluded that there were no identifiable prints anywhere on the rifle.

Fact 86: One print found on one of the boxes in the ‘sniper’s nest’ area was not identified at the time of the assassination. It would be 35 years later, with the introduction of new technology, that the single print would finally be identified. The fingerprint belonged to Malcolm Everett ‘Mac’ Wallace who was a friend of Lyndon B. Johnson.

Fact 87: The House Select Committee on Assassination (HSCA), often know as The Warren Commission as it was led by Chief Justice Earl Warren, was created by President Johnson on November 29, 1963 under Executive Order number 11130 to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

Fact 88: For a few months approaching November 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald developed the pattern of weekend visits to Ruth Paine’s house where his wife and baby were staying, arriving on a Friday and returning to Dallas the following Monday morning being driven by Buell Wesley Frazier, who also worked in the Texas School Book Depository and was a neighbour of Ruth Paine’s. After work, the day before the assassination, Thursday November 21, 1963, Lee asked his co-worker Buell, if he would drive him to Ruth Paine’s house in Irving as there were some curtain rods he needed to pick up for his room. It was a surprise to Marina and Ruth to see him on a Thursday as they’d assumed he’d be home, as usual, the next day, Friday. 

Fact 89: At 12:14 p.m., on Monday 25 November 1963, President John F. Kennedy’s coffin entered St. Matthew’s Cathedral. After a full requiem mass, 76 minutes later, the funeral procession left the Cathedral for Arlington National Cemetery. The procession arrived at the Cemetery at approximately 3.07 p.m. During the flag-folding ceremony and following the 21-gun salute and the three artillery cannonades, Sgt. Keith Clark played ‘Taps’ on the bugle. ‘Taps’ is usually played by a single bugle or trumpet at military funerals by the U.S. States Armed Forces. ‘Taps’ is sometimes known by the first line ‘Day is Done’ and as ‘Butterfield’s Lullaby’.

Preparing to fold the American flag which will then be presented to President John F. Kennedy’s widow, Jacqueline Kennedy

Fact 90: On the day of the assassination, Friday 22 November 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald, who had stayed with his wife at Ruth Paine’s house the night before, left the house early while everyone else was still in bed so neither Marina or Ruth Paine knew what time he’d left. On the cupboard in Marina and Lee’s bedroom he left his wedding ring and his wallet with $170 in it.

Fact 91: Governor Connolly had always insisted he was hit by a different bullet to the one that hit President John F. Kennedy and he never accepted the ‘magic bullet’ theory which the Warren Commission had created.

Fact 92: Lee Harvey Oswald’s wedding ring was bought in Minsk in Russia for his marriage to Marina in 1961. The ring was a simple gold band and it had a stamp of a small hammer and sickle inside. The wedding ring was auctioned in October 2013 and sold for $90,000.

Fact 93: Lee Harvey Oswald’s daughter Audrey Marina Rachel Oswald, born in Parkland Memorial Hospital on October 20, 1963, was 33 days old when President John F. Kennedy was killed, 35 days old when Jack Ruby killed her father. 

Fact 94: During the early part of the afternoon on November 22, 1963 following the shooting of President John F. Kennedy, a man was noticed entering the Texas Theatre in a suspicious manner and evaded paying the entry fee. The ticket taker was told what had been observed, and a description of the man was given which the ticket taker passed onto the police when she phoned them. The description from the ticket taker matched that given by witnesses earlier that day following the assassination. When the police arrived, they entered the Texas Theatre, and as soon as the lights went on, they could see a man matching the description sitting on one of the seats. The film that was showing at the time was ‘War is Hell’. After a bit of a scuffle, the police managed to remove the revolver that the man was carrying and escorted him outside the theatre. Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested and charged with the killing of Dallas Police Officer J.D. Tippit. 

Lee Harvey Oswald leaving the Texas Theatre where he was arrested

Fact 95: The Secret Service wanted to leave Parkland Memorial Hospital immediately and take President John F. Kennedy’s body back to Washington D. C. on Air Force One, which was waiting in Dallas Love Field, but some of the Doctors at Parkland Memorial Hospital were not happy about releasing the President’s body as an autopsy had not been performed. Due to the laws at that time, Dr Earl Rose, the medical examiner for Dallas County, Texas, believed the autopsy should be performed in Parkland Memorial Hospital but the Secret Service Agents, many of whom were close friends of John F. Kennedy, were adamant the autopsy should be done in Bethesda Naval Hospital. After further discussion the Secret Service and the President’s men pushed the casket forward with Jacqueline Kennedy gently guiding the bronze casket out of the hospital and into the waiting hearse ready to take it to Air Force One. On the plane was Lyndon B. Johnson who was waiting for Jacqueline Kennedy and President John F. Kennedy’s body to arrive and to be loaded onto the plane, which the Secret Service Agents and the presidential aides struggled with as it was so heavy, the casket handles were damaged, and 2 seats had to be removed to make room for the casket on the plane. 

Fact 96: In 1989, Lee Harvey Oswald’s wife, Marina Oswald Porter became a naturalized United States Citizen. 

Fact 97: The American people overwhelmed both Marina Oswald and Marie Tippit with their generosity by sending checks and cash to them both. They each had over $70,000 in donations to help their families.

Fact 98: Marina Oswald sold the Russian diary belonging to her husband, Lee Harvey Oswald, for $20,000 to a private collector.

Fact 99: At 11.52am on November 22, 1963, the presidential motorcade departed Dallas Love Field and headed into the centre of Dallas on the way to the Dallas Trade Mart where President John F. Kennedy was scheduled to give a speech. A couple of unscheduled stops along the motorcade route were made for the President to shake hands with small groups of waiting people and talk to some school children. And then at 12.21pm the limousine turned onto Main Street, Dallas. Over 150,000 people lined the 10 mile motorcade route. As the limousine travelled along Houston Street and turned into Elm Street, shots could be heard at 12.30pm. President John F. Kennedy was shot as was Governor Connolly who, with his wife, was travelling in the same limousine as the President and Jacqueline Kennedy. Secret Service Agent Clint Hill mounted the rear of the limousine which sped up Stemmons Freeway and onto Parkland Memorial Hospital, where both the President and the Governor were rushed into the Trauma Rooms. One would be declared dead within minutes and the other would spend 10 days recovering.

Fact 100: One of the ‘backyard photographs’ of her husband dressed in black clothing and holding the Mannlicher Carcano rifle and Militant paper, was sold for $5,000 by Marina Oswald.

Fact 101: On the waiting Air Force One plane at Dallas Love Airport on the evening of November 22, 1963 was Lyndon Johnson, waiting to be sworn in as the 36th President of America. Jacqueline remained next to her husband in the casket for almost the entire time she was on Air Force One until it landed at Andrews Air Force Base near Washington D.C. The only time Jacqueline Kennedy moved away from her husband’s side on Air Force One, and, still wearing the blood stained pink suit, was as she stood on one side of Lyndon B. Johnson when he took the oath of office as the next President while her husband, the previous President of the United States, lay dead in the casket. 

Fact 102: Jack Ruby had a brother Earl Ruby. Earl Ruby did not want to have to sell the gun that Jack had used to shoot Lee Harvey Oswald but Jack had accumulated a large income tax bill and some of the proceeds, $80,000, from the sale of the gun would pay his outstanding tax bill. 

Fact 103: The gun Jack Ruby shot Lee Harvey Oswald with was a .38 caliber Colt Cobra revolver.

Fact 104: Lee Harvey Oswald was, eventually, accused of killing the President but, initially, he was only arrested and accused of the murder of Dallas Police Officer J. D. Tippit.

Fact 105: In February 1964 Jack Ruby was convicted of murdering Lee Harvey Oswald and sentenced to death by the jury. Ruby later appealed his verdict and the conviction was overturned in 1966. Before a second trial could be held, Jack Ruby died in jail on January 3, 1967 in Parkland Memorial Hospital, Dallas, from a pulmonary embolism after being diagnosed with cancer whilst in jail. He was buried in Westgate Cemetery and Mausoleum, Illinois.

Fact 106: President John F. Kennedy who was killed by Lee Harvey Oswald who was killed by Jack Leon Ruby all died in the same hospital, Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas. 

Fact 107: Lee Harvey Oswald was declared dead at 1.07pm on November 24 1963 at Parkland Memorial Hospital. His death was announced on television by the Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry, and an autopsy was carried out on his body in the County Medical Examiner’s office at 2.45pm the same day. 

Fact 108: The original motorcade route never included the presidential limousine travelling down Elm Street where the Texas School Book Depository was located. Instead it was scheduled to continue straight down Main Street and onto the Women’s Building for lunch but this had been changed to the Dallas Trade Mart shortly before the visit to Dallas.

Dealey Plaza, Dallas as it was on November 22 1963. The presidential motorcade route was changed from continuing along Main Street, to turning onto Elm Street

Fact 109: Jack Ruby, a Dallas nightclub owner, was arrested on many occasions for fairly minor offences, including carrying a concealed weapon, though he was never convicted. It was thought that due to these arrests, and his nightclubs that were often populated by local people including local Police Officers and Government Officials, he became very friendly with a number of them. Two days after President John F. Kennedy was assassinated, Jack Ruby went to Dallas City Hall where the local jail was located, and where Lee Harvey Oswald was in the process of being transferred to the County Jail through the jail’s basement. Jack Ruby entered the basement area, where there were many police officers present and, as Oswald was led out handcuffed, Ruby shot him in the stomach at close range before he was restrained by some of the police officers.

Fact 110: The first live killing ever captured on television was the shooting of Lee Harvey Oswald by Jack Ruby on November 24, 1963 in Dallas City Hall.

Fact 111: Jack Ruby always said that he acted alone when he shot, and subsequently killed, Lee Harvey Oswald. But some believed he was part of a larger conspiracy as he knew too many facts, including the exact time and place when the transfer from one jail to another was happening. 

Fact 112: Following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, while he was in Parkland Memorial Hospital, his wife Jacqueline Kennedy removed her wedding ring and put it on her husband’s finger intending him to be buried with it on. Later she changed her mind and asked one of her aide’s to retrieve it as she wanted to keep it.

Fact 113: The gun Jack Ruby used to kill Lee Harvey Oswald, live on television, was auctioned in December 1991 for $220,000. The Dallas Police evidence tag was still attached to it. It was purchased by an anonymous gun collector. Jack Ruby bought the gun in a Dallas gun store for $62.50. 

Fact 114: There are photographs of Lee Harvey Oswald where he is dressed in black clothing, holding a revolver and rifle and a newspaper called ‘The Militant’. Dubbed the ‘backyard photos’, there have been many controversial theories about these photographs, some suggesting they are ‘fake’, and many ‘tests’ have been attempted to try and recreate the stance of Lee Harvey Owald and the uneven shadows in the photographs, and, even though his wife Marina stated to the Warren Commission that she had taken the photographs herself, some believe she had been ‘told’ to say this. One of these ‘backyard photos’ had been given to George De Mohrenschildt and that had been, supposedly, signed by Lee Harvey Oswald.

‘Backyard photo’ of Lee Harvey Oswald dressed in black and holding a rifle and ‘The Militant’ newspaper. It is unknown if this photo is a ‘fake’

Fact 115: The rifle that Lee Harvey Oswald had ordered from a mail order firm in the early part of 1963, was kept in Ruth Paine’s garage adjoining her house, wrapped in a checked blanket. It was this rifle that the Warren Commission stated had been used to kill President Kennedy though fibres from the blanket were not found on the rifle itself. 

Fact 116: Lee Harvey Oswald died on November 24, 1963. His wife Marina, his two daughters June Lee Oswald and Rachel Oswald, his brother Robert and mother Marguerite were the only ones present at his burial in Rose Hill Cemetery, Fort Worth, Dallas. The public were not allowed to attend or enter the cemetery and there were no other friends or relatives present. The gravediggers had not been told who they were actually digging a hole for in case they refused so they were told it was for a ‘William Bobo’. 

Fact 117: Jacqueline Kennedy insisted that Bill Greer, the Secret Service driver who had driven the limousine through Dealey Plaza a few hours earlier, would drive the President’s casket to Bethesda Naval Hospital. It was dark when Air Force one landed at Andrews Air Force Base. Robert Kennedy was waiting and boarded the plane quickly and immediately went to comfort his sister-in-law. The Secret Service Agents and aides removed the President’s casket from the plane and placed it in a waiting ambulance and Jacqueline and Robert accompanied it onto the next stage of its journey to Bethesda Naval Hospital. Millions of Americans watched the arrival and departure of President John F. Kennedy’s casket on live television while President Johnson made a statement. As soon as the ambulance, driven by Bill Greer, arrived at Bethesda Naval Hospital the casket was unloaded by the Secret Service Agents and taken inside. Jacqueline, still wearing the pink Chanel suit smeared with her husband’s dried blood, and Robert were escorted upstairs in the hospital where family and friends were waiting. 

President John F. Kennedy and the First Lady arriving in Dallas Love Field. Jacqueline Kennedy is wearing the pink Chanel suit that will become covered with her husband’s blood as she cradles his head after he’s been shot

Fact 118: One member of the Warren Commission would later become the 38th President of the United States of America namely, Gerald Ford.

Fact 119: In 1955, Marina Oswald enrolled in the Pharmacy Technikum where the Warren Commission Report described she received ‘special training’. She was awarded a diploma in pharmacology in June 1959. Lee Harvey Oswald met his future wife Marina Prusakova, whose uncle was a Colonel in the MVD, the Russian Interior Ministry Security Service, at a trade union dance while he was working in an electronics factory in Minsk, Russia in 1959.

Fact 120: As soon as Lee Harvey Oswald arrived in Russia in 1959, he stated he intended to give secrets to the Russians. In May 1962, when the Oswald family applied to leave the Soviet Union for America, they were given an American loan and allowed to leave unhindered.

Fact 121: While Lee Harvey Oswald was in Russia, someone in New Orleans used his identity to buy vehicles for friends of the Castro Cuban Group which was eventually linked to a private investigator and former FBI agent, William Guy Bannister. Also, in 1960, an FBI memo shows someone in America had been using Lee Harvey Oswald’s identity. 

Fact 122: After midnight on November 23, 1963, the pathologists at Bethesda Naval Hospital finished the autopsy of President John F. Kennedy. Drawings and photographs were taken of his body during and after the autopsy and a team from Gawler’s Funeral Home embalmed the President and attempted to make him as presentable as possible. The Handley Britannica casket that had brought John F. Kennedy back to Washington was steeped in blood and could not be re-used.

Fact 123: Lee Harvey Oswald used the alias of ‘A. J. Hidell’ (Alek James Hidell) when he ordered the revolver and rifle that killed President John F. Kennedy and Officer J. D. Tippit on November 22, 1963. ‘Hidell’ may be a slightly modified form of ‘Fidel’. The Warren Commission stated that Lee Harvey Oswald often used the alias of ‘A.J. Hidell’ with ‘Alek’ being the first name for Hidell which is a possible link to Oswald because ‘Alek’ was a nickname that was used by Oswald when he was in Russia. Letters written by Lee Harvey Oswald and sent to his wife Marina Oswald were signed ‘Alek’.

Fact 124: The pilot of Air Force One, SAM-26000, Colonel James B. Swindal, on its journey back to Washington D.C., carrying the body of President John F. Kennedy, took the plane to an unusual high altitude of 41,000 feet to guard against a possible second attack as he was afraid the assassination may have been part of a conspiracy. 

Fact 125: When Richard Nixon was asked where he was when he heard that President Kennedy was killed, he would say that he was in New York. He was actually in Dallas between November 20 and November 22 1963 attending meetings, one of which was with the Pepsi-Cola Company, in Dallas on November 22, at which he would have heard of President John F. Kennedy’s death. When he returned to New York, the plane he was on had flown in from Dallas. Why he would lie about his whereabouts that day is unknown but it made people suspicious of him, then, and in the future.

Fact 126: On November 21, 1963, a meeting was held at Clint Murchison’s Texas home, a very wealthy oilman. The meeting was also attended by Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon, fellow oilman H. L. Hunt, J. Edgar Hoover Director of the F.B.I., and John McCloy a banker and a future Warren Commission member. Madeleine Duncan Brown, a long standing friend of Lyndon B. Johnson, who was also in the house at the time, has always insisted the meeting took place to discuss and firm up arrangements to assassinate the President the following day. 

Fact 127: There were many reports from different people stating they knew that President John F. Kennedy was going to be assassinated and which officials, including the Dallas Police, dismissed. Rose Cheramie who worked for Jack Ruby, Eugene Dinkin who was a U.S. Army cryptographic operator, and also Joseph Milteer a right wing extremist, stated there was a plot to kill the President ‘from an office building with a high powered rifle.’ This was said by Milteer, on tape, on November 10, 1963, nearly 2 weeks before the actual assassination. These reports were not taken seriously at the time with the result that the Secret Service did not strengthen the protection they provided in Dallas that day. 

Fact 128: The fact that Joseph Milteer actually named the man who was supposedly going to kill President John F. Kennedy, Jack Brown, which was never mentioned by the FBI nor by the Warren Commission. This may have been because Jack Brown was an informer for the Miami Police Force. He was probably also an agent/informer for another agency. Jack Brown was also known to Jack Ruby.

Fact 129: It has never been understood why Lee Harvey Oswald shot President John F. Kennedy. What reason, what motive did he have to do it? No-one knows as no real rationale has ever been given, and Lee Harvey Oswald always denied shooting both Officer Tippit and President John F. Kennedy. Plus, before he could be questioned further, he himself was shot dead by Jack Ruby, a Dallas nightclub owner.

Fact 130: One of the most famous home movies is a 26.6 second silent 8mm color motion picture taken by Abraham Zapruder who filmed the assassination of President Kennedy on November 22, 1963. The film consists of 486 frames taken on a camera called the Bell & Howell Zoomatic which, in 1962, was a top of the line camera. It was subsequently used as evidence in the assassination investigation carried out by the Warren Commission.

The Bell & Howell Zoomatic camera used by Abraham Zapruder to film the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22 1963 in Dallas, Texas

Fact 131: Born on May 15, 1905, Abraham Zapruder’s family emigrated to Brooklyn, New York in 1920. He was a Ukranian born textile manufacturer and he found work in Manhattan’s garment district. In 1933 he married Lillian Sapovnik and they moved to Dallas in 1941 to work for a company who made sportswear. He worked closely with his colleague, Jeanne LeGon making Chalet and Jennifer Junior dresses which he co-founded. His offices were located in the Dal-Tex Building on Elm Street, which was situated directly across the road from the Texas School Book Depository building. 

Fact 132: Jeanne LeGon worked with Abraham Zapruder for Nardis, a company which made and sold fashionable clothes, and was situated in the building opposite the Texas School Book Depository. She was the same Jeanne LeGon who became the 4th wife of George De Mohrenschildt, the same De Mohrenschildts who would befriend Lee Harvey Oswald and his wife Marina a few years later. 

Fact 133: One of Abraham Zapruder’s working colleagues at Nardis, the clothing company, was the mother of Lyndon B. Johnson’s secretary, Marie Fehmer.

Fact 134: Just after 4.00am on November 23, 1963, President John F. Kennedy’s casket draped in the American flag, was carried by an honour guard into the East Room of the White House and placed on a replica of the black catafalque that Lincoln’s coffin had also rested on. After President John F. Kennedy’s casket was placed in the East Room, Jacqueline Kennedy, accompanied by Robert Kennedy, asked for the lid to be opened. Jackie was still wearing the Pink Chanel suit that she had cradled her dying husband’s head in. The First Lady, Jacqueline Kennedy, continually refused to change her clothes as she wanted everyone to see what “they” had done to her husband, to ‘their’ President. As the casket lid was opened she could see it would not be possible for it to remain open and, after snipping a lock of her husband’s hair, she said ‘It isn’t Jack – close the lid’.

President John F. Kennedy’s closed casket in the East Room in the White House

Fact 135: Abraham Zapruder was the only witness to have filmed the entire assassination process at 12.30pm on November 22, 1963. And, having filmed President John F. Kennedy’s horrific, fatal head shot, he also had the presence of mind at the time, to keep on filming rather than, out of sheer panic, lowering the camera.  

Fact 136: Soon after the limousine that President Kennedy was in had driven out of view, heading towards Parkland Memorial Hospital, Abraham Zapruder, who would only speak to a government official, was approached by one of the Dallas Morning News reporters, Harry McCormick, who contacted the head of the Dallas Secret Service Office, Agent Forrest Sorrels. Zapruder did not want to release the film before obtaining copies of it and as soon as Agent Sorrels arrived they took the film to be developed to Eastman’s Kodak Company (the film used in the camera was Kodak film) near Dallas Love Field where they arrived at 2.40pm, approximately the same time Air Force One was leaving Dallas Love Field for Washington with President John F. Kennedy’s body on board.

Fact 137: Eastman’s Kodak Company was able to develop the film from Abraham Zapruder’s movie camera but did not have the facilities to make copies which was done by the Jamieson Film Company, a Texas film production company, who produced 3 additional copies. Zapruder kept the original plus 1 copy and the other 2 copies were given to Agent Sorrels who immediately arranged for one of his copies to be taken to the Dallas Naval Air Station where it was placed on a jet which left immediately for Washing D.C. where FBI investigators were waiting to receive it.                      

Fact 138: Abraham Zapruder was interviewed live on television by Jay Watson of WFAA, describing the abhorrent sights he had seen and how it would remain in his memory until the day he died.

Fact 139: A lot of the evidence surrounding the shooting of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, inexplicitly went missing, was destroyed, or witnesses disappeared before they could give official statements to the Warren Commission.

Fact 140: One of the most perplexing pieces of evidence involved the medical treatment and autopsy of President John F. Kennedy at the two hospitals where his body was taken. First to Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas where President John F. Kennedy was treated by Dr Malcolm Perry the surgeon in charge, who made observations and performed procedures, and then to Bethesda Naval Hospital. Errors were made in both hospitals including doctors in Dallas cutting into a bullet wound to try and save the life of the President but destroying evidence in the process, and military pathologists performing the autopsy instead of forensic pathologists where further mistakes were made. Because of incorrect assumptions made at Parkland Memorial Hospital that the President’s neck wound was an entrance wound this was then obscured when a tracheostomy was performed by Dr Perry. 

Fact 141: Due to mistakes made at Parkland Memorial Hospital, by the time the body arrived in Bethesda Naval Hospital, Maryland, at 6.35 pm on November 22, 1963, only the tracheostomy incision was visible and Dr James Humes, who conducted the autopsy, was not aware of a bullet hole in the neck area. It was only following the conclusion of the autopsy, after the body had been embalmed and the head reconstructed that Dr Humes telephoned Dr Perry in Parkland Memorial Hospital to discuss the autopsy and was informed by Dr Perry of the neck wound. Dr Humes had to quickly re-write the autopsy report to reflect the existence of the bullet wound to the neck.

Fact 142: The Warren Commission declared that on the day of the assassination, 3 shots were fired with two striking President John F. Kennedy as his limousine passed the Texas School Book Depository. A number of experts, on analysing different footage of the assassination, thought that 4 shots could be heard. Governor Connolly has always stated that he is certain that the bullet that hit him was not the same bullet that also hit the President – the so called ‘magic bullet’.

Fact 143: President John F. Kennedy was struck once in the back of the right shoulder, with the bullet exiting his neck. He was then shot in the back of the head, and, according to medical experts, was dead as soon as the bullet hit him.

Fact 144: The Warren Commission requested a number of re-enactments of the shooting as they needed to show that Lee Harvey Oswald did have the time to fire 3 shots in very quick succession at the President, thus establishing he acted alone. These re-enactments were profoundly flawed as they were accomplished by changing the evidence to fit the crime.  

Fact 145: Early the next day, November 23, 1963, the editor of ‘Life’ magazine, Richard Stolley met Abraham Zapruder to view the film and the print rights were sold to him for $50,000. Later, on November 24 1963, ‘Life’ magazine bought all rights to the film for $150,000. Abraham Zapruder did not want the public to see the fatal shot to President John F. Kennedy’s head, so a condition of the sale was that frame number 313 of the film would be with-held due to its very graphic nature and this condition was accepted by  ‘Life’ magazine. Frame number 313 would not be seen by the public for over 12 years.

Fact 146: It was on Air Force One, SAM-26000, after the casket containing President John F. Kennedy’s body was placed on board the plane that Lyndon B. Johnson, the Vice President, at 2.38pm CST, took the oath of office and was sworn in as the 36th President of the United States of America, 2 hours and 8 minutes after President John F. Kennedy was assassinated.  The plane took off from Dallas Love Field at 2.47pm CST, to return to Washington D.C.

Fact 147: Frame 313 of Abraham Zapruder’s film of President John F. Kennedy’s assassination did not appear in public again until it was shown, in 1975, on Geraldo Rivera’s television show ‘Good Night America’. People said that, after watching the film, they were overwhelmed with emotion and haunted by the pictures they saw and the horrific nature of frame 313. The majority of people wished they had never seen frame 313.

Fact 148: Abraham Zapruder gave $25,000 from the sale of the President John F. Kennedy’s assassination film, to Dallas Police Officer J. D. Tippit’s widow.

Fact 149: People often ask what happened to the first casket used by President John F. Kennedy, the Handley Britannica. It was collected, on February 18, 1966, by the Air Force, from a secure building at the National Archives where it had been stored. It was taken to Andrews Air Force Base where it was then loaded onto a C130 Transport plane to be flown out to the Atlantic Ocean, a place John F. Kennedy had once considered being buried as he loved the sea. The plane flew over 100 miles out over the ocean and, at approximately 500 feet above the water the tail hatch was opened and the casket was gently pushed into the water. The casket had been filled with heavy sandbags and holes had been drilled in it and then it had been placed inside a crate and sealed shut so it wouldn’t break up on hitting the water. The casket began to sink as soon as it touched the water. The plane remained circling the area to make sure the casket didn’t resurface but there was no sign of it. It had settled in approximately 9,000 feet of water. 

Fact 150: On Saturday November 23, 1963, the day following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the new President Lyndon Johnson issued presidential proclamation 3561 that Monday November 25 1963, the day of President John F. Kennedy’s funeral would be a national day of mourning for the American people.

Fact 151: On November 22, 1963, over 250,000 people had gathered along the 10 mile motorcade route in Dallas to see President John F. Kennedy and the First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy. The presidential limousine had turned off Houston Street and was travelling along Elm Street in Dealey Plaza when, at approximately 12.30pm CST, the President and Governor John Connolly were shot and injured. There were further shots, 2, 3 and perhaps a fourth. In all the panic and commotion that day it is understandable that people who were near the car, heard and saw different things that day, as people were running in all directions and pointing to different areas including the grassy knoll area. What is clear from photographs taken, and from the Zapruder film, was that Jacqueline Kennedy had got out of her car seat next to her husband and had leant over the back of the trunk of the car to reach ‘something’ that was on the lower part of the trunk. It’s never been made clear exactly what that ‘something’ was that Jacqueline felt she had to grab. Secret Service Agent, Clint Hill, guided her back to her seat in the car while it sped off up Stemmons Freeway and onto Parkland Memorial Hospital.

Just after President John F. Kennedy had been shot, Secret Service Agent Clint Hill jumped on the back of the limousine as it sped off to Parklands Memorial Hospital

Fact 152: It was believed that at least 3 shots were fired in total with one shot missing entirely, one striking both President John F. Kennedy and Governor John Connolly (the ‘magic bullet’), and a third shot striking the President in the head – this was the fatal, killer shot. James Tague, a spectator who had been watching the motorcade, received a small injury to his face from a stone or splintered piece of curbstone which the first shot had struck.

Fact 153: The single bullet theory, or the ‘magic bullet’ theory as it was sometimes called, was introduced by the Warren Commission to explain the amount of injuries caused by the 3 bullet shots. One shot missed completely, one struck the President in the head which meant that all the other injuries to both the President and to Governor Connolly had to have been made by a single shot – the ‘single bullet’ or ‘magic bullet’ theory, which has been one of the most controversial in history. How could one bullet cause so many injuries in two people at the same time? 

The ‘magic bullet’ found on Governor Connolly’s gurney in Parkland Memorial Hospital following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy 

Fact 154: We know the first bullet missed President John F. Kennedy entirely and the second bullet entered the President’s back and exited his throat. There were a total of seven entry/exit wounds in both men. The Warren Commission’s decision was that a bullet from a Mannlicher Carcano rifle, fired from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository, passed through President John F. Kennedy’s neck, from back to front, entered Governor Connally’s chest, went through his wrist, and finally embedded itself in the Governor’s thigh. If all this happened just as the Warren Commission said it did, then this bullet had to go through 15 layers of clothing, seven layers of skin, and some 15 inches of muscle tissue. It struck the knot of a necktie, removed 4 inches of rib and shattered a radius bone before exiting and then embedding itself in the thigh of Governor Connolly.

Fact 155: The ‘magic bullet’ was found laying on the gurney that had brought Governor Connolly to Parkland Memorial Hospital following the assassination. The gurney was left in a corridor after Governor Connolly had been removed from it and taken for surgery. This bullet was found by hospital engineer Darrell C. Tomlinson who stated ‘the bullet just rolled into view when I bumped into the gurney’. Upon close examination you could see that the copper jacket covering the bullet was fully intact and, while the front nose of the bullet looked normal, the tail end was flattened on one side. Governor Connolly and his wife, who was also in the car, have never accepted the ‘magic bullet’ theory and have always maintained that all three shots struck people in the limousine and the bullet that struck Governor Connelly was a separate bullet from the one that struck the President. 

Fact 156: Just a minute or so had passed after the shooting of President John F. Kennedy when Police Officer Marrion Baker, who had entered the Texas School Book Depository after the assassination, was stopping people inside the building to ask questions. One of the people that was stopped was Lee Harvey Oswald who was on the second floor lunchroom but, when his supervisor, Roy S. Truly confirmed Lee was an employee there, he was allowed to leave the building.

Fact 157: After Lee Harvey Oswald left the Texas School Book Depository, he made his way to his rented room in 1026 North Beckley Avenue, in the Oak Cliff area of Dallas, where he arrived at approximately 12.57. His housekeeper, Earlene Roberts, said she saw him arrive at the rooming house and go into his room. He picked up his revolver and a light coloured jacket and left the house.

Fact 158: At 1.00pm in Parkland Memorial Hospital, President John F. Kennedy was declared dead.

Fact 159: At about the time that Lee Harvey Oswald was leaving his rented room in Oak Cliff, the Dallas Police Department was broadcasting a general description of the suspect, based on various witnesses accounts at the time, ‘white male, approximately 30, slender build, height 5 feet 10 inches, 165 pounds. Reported to be armed with what is believed to be a .30-caliber rifle’. 

Fact 160: A search was conducted of the Texas School Book Depository by Dallas Police Officers and Secret Service Agents. A rifle was found leaning on a ledge with its barrel pointing out of the open sixth floor window. Dallas Deputy Sheriff Luke Mooney discovered three empty bullet cartridges on the floor and the whole corner of that area was stacked with boxes which would have shielded the shooter from being seen by anyone else on that floor. They subsequently called it ‘the sniper’s nest’.

Fact 161: Malcolm ‘Mac’ Wallace, a friend of Lyndon B. Johnson, and the man who’s fingerprint was found in the ‘sniper’s nest’, was born on October 15 1951. He had been convicted of murdering professional golfer John Douglas Kinser in the clubhouse of an Austin golf course. Here Wallace shot and killed Kinser on October 22, 1951. John D. Kinser had been having an affair with Josefa Johnson – the sister of Lyndon B. Johnson. 

Fact 162: Malcolm ‘Mac’ Wallace was defended by Lyndon B. Johnson’s own lawyer, John Cofer, at his trial for killing John Kinser. He pleaded guilty on a charge of first degree murder and the jury found him guilty of ‘murder with malice aforethought’. Eleven jurors requested the death penalty but the jury were overruled by Judge Charles O. Betts who gave Wallace a five-year suspended sentence so he was free to leave the courtroom immediately upon the conclusion of the trial. Several of the jury were visibly upset on hearing this result and many apologized to John Kinser’s family stating they had no option but to agree to the sentence the judge had passed as threats had been made against their families. Malcolm ‘Mac’ Wallace served no time in jail and received a suspended sentence for commiting the high profile murder of John Kinser. He died in Texas on January 7, 1971 in a car accident.

Fact 163: President John F. Kennedy had not made plans for his funeral so many of the funeral details were arranged by his brother-in-law, Robert Sargent Shriver Jr., the husband of the President’s sister Eunice Kennedy Shriver, with the help of his widow Jacquline Kennedy and various military authorities.

Fact 164: When Mac Wallace was arrested for the murder of John Kinser he was released after Bill Carroll and M.E. Ruby, both Lyndon B. Johnson’s friends and financial supporters, posted his bail. 

Fact 165: Badge number 848 belonged to Police Officer J. D. Tippit, who had served for 11 years as a Dallas Police Officer. He was a U.S. Army veteran having served in World War II and a recipient of the Bronze Star. He was married with a daughter and 2 sons. His last watch ended on November 22, 1963.

Dallas Police Officer J. D. Tippit

Fact 166: In police car number 10, Officer Tippit was patrolling the Oak Cliff area of Dallas on November 22, 1963 when, 45 minutes after President John F. Kennedy was shot, he saw a man walking along Patton Avenue who matched the general  description given over the police radio of the suspect a short time earlier. He pulled his car over to speak to the ‘suspect’ Lee Harvey Oswald.

Fact 167: Police Officer J. D. Tippit and Lee Harvey Oswald spoke through an open window of the police car. They had a short conversation and Officer Tippit got out of his car. As he was walking forward, Lee Harvey Oswald pulled out his gun quite suddenly and shot Officer Tippit four times at close range with a .38 revolver and then walked away. A witness to the shooting used the police radio in the car to inform other officers of the shooting. When the bullets were removed from Officer Tippit’s body to be examined, it could not be proven positively they had been fired from Lee Harvey Oswald’s revolver as the bullets were too damaged to be conclusive. After Lee Harvey Oswald had allegedly shot Officer J. D. Tippit, approximately 45 minutes after allegedly shooting President John F. Kennedy, he made his way to the Texas Theatre where he was arrested by Dallas Police Officers.

Fact 168: At the scene where it was alleged that Lee Harvey Oswald shot and killed Police Officer J. D. Tippit, two separate witnesses to the shooting, Acquilla Clemons who was sitting on a close by house porch, and Frank Wright who was walking nearby, both stated that they had seen 2 men talking to Officer Tippit and neither of the men resembled Lee Harvey Oswald.

Fact 169: The New York Stock Exchange suspended trading after an $11 million flood of orders to sell was received following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

Fact 170: Some people didn’t realise that the Texas School Book Depository was housed in two separate parts of the building in 1963 in Dallas. Roy S Truly, Lee Harvey Owald’s supervisor, was going to tell Oswald to report to the Texas School Book storage warehouse but, at the last minute, it was decided that they needed extra man power in the main building in Dealey Plaza.

Fact 171: On October 26, 1992, almost 30 years after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, on November 22, 1963, a public law was passed by President George Bush which stated that the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) was to establish, and store, a single collection of records that would be known as The President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection. The collection would consist of copies of every U.S. Government document record that related to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and they would all be collated and stored in the NARA Archives. The law also planned to make the records available to the public by October 26, 2017. While many of the records are now available to the public, President Trump refused to declassify all the records and many of them remain classified.

Fact 172: The Warren Commission concluded, in September 1964, that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone when he assassinated President John F. Kennedy. They stated there had been no other gunman, and no other person, or persons involved. This has been disputed and argued about since the day of the assassination itself and, unless the remaining documents waiting to be declassified and made available to the public, produce written evidence that will finally solve the murder, it will continue to be disputed for long into the future. This is a ‘who really done it murder mystery’ that will prolong for many, many years, if not forever.

Fact 173: A London reporter who worked for the ‘Cambridge News’ received a ‘tip-off’ that there would be big news in Dallas. The ‘tip-off’ was received 25 minutes before President John F. Kennedy was actually shot.

Fact 174: CBS broadcast the first nationwide television news bulletin on the shooting at 12.40pm CST when Walter Cronkite told America that President John F. Kennedy had been shot. All 3 television networks, CBS, NBC and ABC covered the assassination for 4 straight days. 

Fact 175: President John F. Kennedy’s assassination was the longest uninterrupted news event on television and was only overtaken by the September 11, 2001 attacks.

Fact 176: President John F. Kennedy’s assassination was the first since the secret service had begun protecting Presidents.

Fact 177: A Secret Service Agent called ‘O’Neal’s Funeral Home’ and spoke to Vernon B. O’Neal about needing the best casket they had available as soon as possible. A heavy Handley Brittania casket from the Elgin Casket Company was chosen. It was a solid bronze coffin with a lining of white satin and it weighed over 400 pounds. Once it was loaded onto O’Neal’s Cadillac hearse, it was delivered to Parkland Memorial Hospital. Clint Hill was the Secret Service Agent and the casket he had ordered was for President John F. Kennedy’s body.

Fact 178: When the casket arrived at Parkland Memorial Hospital, it was taken to Trauma Room One where the body of President John F. Kennedy lay. His wife, Jacqueline Kennedy, still in her pink Chanel suit, went into Trauma Room One to see her husband. She placed her own wedding ring on her husband’s finger before leaving the room and waiting outside in the hallway.

Fact 179: Texas Federal Judge Sarah T. Hughes cried as she administered the oath of office to Lyndon B. Johnson on Air Force One. She was the first female judge to administer the presidential oath of office.

Fact 180: President John F. Kennedy and his two children, who had both died in infancy, were all buried in Arlington National Cemetery, Lot 45, Section 30.

Fact 181: John F. Kennedy’s brother, and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, met Air Force One at Andrews Air Force Base on its return from Dallas and helped remove the casket from the plane into the waiting ambulance.

Fact 182: The handles of the casket that contained the body of President F. Kennedy were damaged when trying to get it into the plane at Dallas Love Field as the doors of the plane weren’t quite wide enough for the casket to fit through.

Fact 183: On November 29, 1963, a week after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, President Lyndon Johnson, his successor, created a commission under Executive Order 11130 to investigate President John F. Kennedy’s death. The commission would be led by Chief Justice Earl Warren and would become known as the ‘Warren Commission’. Initially, Lyndon Johnson did not want to form an investigative  federal commission and felt it would have been preferential for Texas to deal with it as a ‘local killing’. When he subsequently heard that both the House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate were considering doing their own investigation’s he felt he would have more ‘control’ if he instigated one single commission rather than have a raft of them with the possible outcome offering conflicting reports.

Fact 184: The limousine that President John F. Kennedy and the First Lady travelled in through Dallas was a 1961 customised dark blue Lincoln Continental Four Door Convertible which had been flown in from Washington D.C. for the motorcade.

Fact 185: The limousine used by President John F. Kennedy and his wife in Dallas was made in January 1961 by The Ford Motor Company at its car plant in Wixom, Michigan. The car had been customized by Hess & Eisenhardt of Cincinnati, Ohio so it could be used as a presidential limousine in a parade. Customizing included cutting the car in half and extending it by over 3ft 6ins in length, reinforcing it and carrying out various other adaptations. Prior to it’s customization the car would have cost approximately $7,400 but after it had been customized the cost increased to $200,000.

President John F. Kennedy, his wife Jacqueline Kennedy, Governor Connolly, and his wife Nellie moments before the assassination on November 22 1963

Fact 186: The Secret Service gave the Lincoln Continental presidential limousine the code name ‘X-100’. The car was leased to the Secret Service for $500 per year.

Fact 187: After the assassination on November 22, 1963, the limousine used by President John F. Kennedy and his wife on that day in Dallas was rebuilt by Hess & Eisenhardt Company, and they changed it into an armoured car that had a permanent top with bullet proof windows. It was occasionally used by other Presidents including Johnson, Nixon, Ford and Carter, and it remained in service until 1977. The public can now see the car on display in the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan.

Fact 188: President John F. Kennedy was dressed in a favourite pinstriped suit with a white shirt, black shoes and a blue tie with dots, his favourite color. They placed him in the second casket and a catholic rosary was placed in his hands. The second casket was a Marsellus 710 coffin that was crafted from hand-rubbed, five-hundred-year-old African mahogany and, it was that flag-draped casket, also from Gawler’s Funeral Home, that President John F. Kennedy was buried in at Arlington National Cemetery on Monday November 25, 1963.

Fact 189: Lee Harvey Oswald died at the same hospital as President John F. Kennedy, Parkland Memorial Hospital, Dallas, 2 days and 7 minutes after him.

Fact 190: The New York Times reported that President John F. Kennedy’s 98 year old grandmother, Mary Josephine Fitzgerald, was not told about the assassination at the time.

Fact 191: Over a quarter of a million people paid their respects to the former President as he lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda but tens of thousands were lined up outside, in a line that stretched for many miles.

President John F. Kennedy’s casket lying in state in the Rotunda U.S. Capitol 
His wife, Jacqueline Kennedy and their daughter Caroline are kneeling at the side

Fact 192: Following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, his state funeral took place in Washington D.C. over the 3 days that followed his assassination in Dallas, Texas. His body had been brought back to Washington soon after his death and placed in the East Room of the White House where family and friends could visit, pay their respects and say goodbye. On Sunday November 24, 1963, his flag-draped casket was carried on a horse-drawn caisson from the White House to the U.S. Capitol to lie in state. Many thousands of people lined up to view the guarded casket and millions around the world watched it live on television.

Jacqueline Kennedy with her two children, Caroline and John Jr., after viewing her husband’s casket as he lay in state in the Rotunda, U.S. Capitol

Fact 193: After the funeral, President John F. Kennedy’s widow, Mrs Jacqueline Kennedy met with 3 Heads of State, President Charles de Gaulle of France, Eamon de Valera, President of Ireland, and Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia.

Fact 194: Many people believed that President John F. Kennedy had been killed as part of a conspiracy and this included his wife Jacqueline Kennedy. She believed that Lyndon B. Johnson was part of a plan to assassinate her husband in collaboration with a cabal of tycoons from Texas. Her beliefs were recorded on tape by leading historian Arthur Schlesinger Jnr. a few months after her husband’s death. The tapes are stored in a vault at the Kennedy Library in Boston after Jacqueline Kennedy ordered that they would remain locked away in secret for 50 years following her death. She died on May 9, 1994 from cancer. A few years after her mother died, Jacqueline Kennedy’s daughter, Caroline, made an agreement with the ABC Television Network in America to air the tapes at an earlier date.

Fact 195: Lyndon B. Johnson left Parkland Memorial Hospital at 1.26pm for Air Force One at Dallas Love Field to return to Washington D. C., and, while on board, he heared the News Wire Service announce that President John F. Kennedy was dead.

Fact 196: The pink Chanel suit that Jacquline Kennedy was wearing on the day President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, is still smeared with her husband’s blood, and is being stored in the National Archives. It is not currently for public viewing. It will not be seen by the public until 2103, or later, as decreed by Caroline Kennedy, President John F. Kennedy and Jacqueline Kennedy’s first child and sole surviving heir. When the time has elapsed, the descendants of the Kennedy family have the option to renegotiate whether to release the pink suit for public viewing or to lock it away again.

Fact 197: President John F. Kennedy’s grave at Arlington National Cemetery overlooks the Potomac River in Washington. His grave is marked with an eternal flame which had been lit by his widow on the day he was buried, Monday November 25, 1963. Engraved in his gravestone are, what many consider to be, the most famous words that President John F. Kennedy ever spoke publicly, “And so, my fellow Americans – ask not what your country will do for you – ask what you can do for your country”.

President John F. Kennedy’s inauguration


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